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1. Astronomy & Calendars        2. The Odyssey &  the  Iliad       3. Through the Ages

4. Odysseus and the Moon       5.  Homer the Mathematician   6. A deadly message

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Homer, Astronomy & a luni-solar calendar

by Florence and Kenneth Wood

IN the centuries after the death of Homer, the ancient world’s renowned poet and story-teller, there have been intriguing but unresolved references to him also being skilled in the field of astronomy. Indeed, the philosopher Heraclitus (c. 535 – c.475 BC) described him as ‘Homer the Astronomer, considered wisest of all Greeks.’

Explorations of Homer’s epics in Homer’s Secret Iliad (John Murray, 1999) and Homer’s Secret Odyssey (The History Press, 2011)  now propose that in addition to preserving the cultural heritage of the pre-literate Greeks, Homer (c.745-700 BC) and generations of  bards in the late Bronze Age also had a crucial practical role.

They should also be regarded as the guardians of wide-ranging knowledge of astronomy and calendar-making woven into traditional stories which were passed down by word of mouth during the centuries the Greeks did not have a writing system. Extended analysis, not only of narrative but also of remarkably accurate numerical data embedded in the epics, supports this ground-breaking study – see Homer the Mathematician below.

There are no known historic accounts of the extent of Homer’s learning or of how such knowledge was passed down through the generations when the Bronze Age Greeks did not have a writing system.

The pre-literate Greeks, however, would have had the same essential need for knowledge of astronomy, calendar-making and navigation as that known to their literate contemporaries in Babylon and Egypt. Without such learning the organisation of life in the city states of ancient Greece would have been in chaos.

In the Iliad and the Odyssey, warriors have bronze armour and weapons and iron is also mentioned – evidence of knowledge of metallurgy. Fleets of multi-oared sailing ships would have been built by skilled craftsmen with considerable technical knowledge of design and measurement. Homer also credits a Greek alliance of 29 city-states with the organising ability to assemble an army of thousands of men and a combined fleet of 1186 ships to sail across the seas to besiege the city of Troy. Battlefield medical care was also on hand and Homer tells of a wounded warrior being treated with a pain-killing salve.

On more domestic fronts, Homer’s Greeks raised crops, domesticated animals, harvested the seas, organized communal life and sporting events and were entertained – and educated – by generations of poet-singers.

Astute observations of the night skies and mathematical skills concerning sophisticated  cycles of the sun, moon and planet Venus, were essential for ancient astronomers and calendar makers – and Homer was remarkably gifted in these fields.

The adoption of a writing system by the Greeks in times not too far distant from Homer, would be one reason for epic mythology becoming redundant as the vehicle for the preservation of astronomical knowledge.  Even so, Homer’s literary genius as poet and storyteller has remained unchallenged for more than 2,500 years.

Also after Homer the nature of astronomy changed.  The polymath Thales of Miletus, c.624–547 BC, has been acclaimed as the father of science and philosophy and ‘the most senior in wisdom of all the astronomers of his age’.

None of Thales’ works have survived, but later sources affirm that he sought to explain the natural world and the heavens in terms of reason and natural processes rather than as the realm of gods and heroes of mythology. This fundamental shift in Greek ideas paved the way for the natural philosophers who followed Thales and whose works have come down through the ages to our own times.

Homer, of course, was not the only astronomer of a pre-literate society to preserve a wealth of learning in the medium of story-telling. Studies of ancient societies have been fertile fields for academics and have included investigations into the astronomical achievements of pre-literate cultures as diverse as the Aborigines of Australia, the navigators of the Southern oceans and peoples of the Americas, Africa, China and  Europe.


Edna F Leigh

EFL- blogIt was only after years of  study that Edna F Leigh, MSc, (1916-1991), concluded that considerable knowledge of astronomy and calendar-making was embedded in the Iliad and the Odyssey as extended metaphor.

Ill health in later life prevented Edna from completing her research and on her death she left her papers to her daughter Florence Wood, who, with husband Kenneth and support from academic and astronomical sources, have expanded her pioneering study.  Homer’s Secret Iliad  (John Murray) was published in 1999, and followed in 2011 by Homer’s Secret Odyssey (the History Press).

Edna had spent  years studying the Homeric epics before concluding that ‘In my study of The Iliad and The Odyssey I assume that these epics represent an ancient people’s thoughts related to the science of astronomy and expressed in the form of elaborate narrative poetry.’

‘The epics [had] perplexed me’, she wrote, ‘for they seemed unaccountably to reflect some indefinable meaning that was comparable, in a sense, with the faint and tantalising whispers of melody played upon an unknown instrument during the mighty crescendos of a full orchestra.

‘Although I believed this impression could be hardly more than a ridiculous notion, I found my new concept of shadowy form behind gossamer-like substance even more puzzling and provoking than my former idea of an elusive epical meaning.

‘Nevertheless, by the time I could actually define the imagery that my reading engendered, I almost questioned my reason: the Homeric picture seemed to consist of points and lines, of angles and arcs, of cycles and circles, of order and time, of stillness and motion and of darkness and light.

‘Then felt I like some watcher of the skies,’ declared John Keats in his poem, ‘On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer’, after reading The Iliad for the first time … these words of his helped me clarify the mixed impressions engendered by my own readings of Homer.’

Only after Edna had concluded that considerable astronomical learning was preserved in Homer’s epics was she able to embark upon yet more years of study to support her hypothesis.

These studies enhance Homer’s reputation not only as the creator of two literary masterpieces but also as a learned and practical man of science, and offer a sublime dimension to the intellectual achievements of the pre-literate Greeks.

A considerable advantage in our contribution to Homeric Astronomy was the advent of astronomical computer programmes which, at the touch of a keyboard, could project images of the night sky at the latitude of Greece at the time of Homer and long before. These computer images confirmed the accuracy of Edna Leigh’s careful drawings which linked events in the Iliad and the Odyssey with scenes of the ancient night sky.

© 2014-2016 K&FSWood


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2. The Odyssey and the Iliad

JUST as the literary content of the Odyssey and the Iliad is very different, so is the astronomical learning preserved in each epic.

There are two key elements in exploring the Odyssey as a source of calendrical and astronomical knowledge:

A challenging new reading of the epic as extended astronomical metaphor provides the structure of a luni-solar calendar system.

Powerful support arises from mathematical analysis of extensive numerical data embedded in the Odyssey which Homer manipulated to preserve wide-ranging and precise knowledge of astronomy, cycles of the sun, moon and planet Venus, and calendar-making.

Mathematics and the application of data were as important in astronomical studies in ancient times as they are today and in Homer’s Secret Odyssey they were fields in which Homer excelled. Embedded throughout the Odyssey is a surprising amount of numerical data which in the past has attracted little attention and certainly not in terms of astronomy and calendar-making.

Such is the volume and accuracy of this numerical content directly related to astronomy and calendar-making, that mathematical probability overwhelmingly indicates Homer could not have chosen it purely by chance.

In Mesopotamia and post-Homeric Greece the lunar calendar based on a lunar month reckoned at 29.5 days was in common daily use. The lunar month with its easily recognisable progression from new crescent to first quarter, full moon, last quarter and dark period, was immensely convenient for calculating time in terms of months and days. A major problem, however, was reconciling the lunar year of 354 days with the solar year of 365 days.

A solution was discovered with the development of luni-solar cycles based on careful observation of the three brightest objects in the heavens – the  sun, moon and planet Venus. It is not suggested that Homer was the first to recognise these cycles but he was so familiar with certain of them that the Iliad and the Odyssey are connected by the thread of a 19-year cycle of the sun and moon which eventually became known as the Metonic after the Athenian astronomer Meton who lived some 300 years after the poet-astronomer.

Within the time-frame of his 19-year cycle, Homer also embedded accurate detail of other significant cycles: the four-year Olympiad, the octaёteris (8-year) luni-solar cycles, and an 8-year cycle of the planet Venus. He also defined the number of lunations in the Saros series which makes it possible to forecast eclipses of the sun and moon.

There was even more evidence of Homer’s genius to come.  By transposing Odysseus’s journey home from Troy from the ‘wine dark’ seas to the metaphorical ‘wine-dark’ skies, it enabled the poet-astronomer to construct an annual luni-solar calendar system in which days and months were reckoned by the moon and the passing of the solar year from winter solstice to winter solstice.

So detailed is Homer’s annual calendar in marking the equinoxes and solstices, adjusting the lunar year with the solar year, and tracing the annual path of the sun through the stars on or about the ecliptic, that it might well have been used as a template for generations of calendar makers.

To preserve such extensive calendrical learning, Homer created for Odysseus an alter ego as a personification of the moon. So closely is Odysseus’s astronomical role linked to the calendar that the tempo of his adventures is governed by the rhythm of the monthly lunar cycle from new crescent moon to full moon and on to waning moon and the dark period. Meanwhile the sun traces its yearly journey through constellations of the ecliptic.

These challenging concepts are examined in detail in Homer’s Secret Odyssey and in particular in Chapters 7 to 13, as well as in a day-by-day  ‘log’ of Odysseus’s adventures (HSO pp200–221).

Homer makes a mathematical diversion in the story of Polyphemus when he projects an ancient concept of pi – the ratio of a diameter of a circle to its circumference and a topic so old its that origins are unknown (see HSO Chapter 8).

The Iliad

In the Iliad, Homer constructs dramatic metaphorical images of the night sky with brutal and unforgettable accounts of combat and ingeniously links warriors and their regiments with stars and constellations.

Other astronomical matters in Homer’s Secret Iliad (1999) include Homer’s concept of an earth-centered universe, an exploration of precession in terms of the Fall of Troy, gods and their links with planets and the moon, and ‘Homer the Map-Maker’.

© Florence and Kenneth Wood, 1999 – 2016

 See also:    Homer the Astronomer – 1   and

Homer the Astronomer – 2   …  on YouTube

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3. Homer the Astronomer through the ages


Heraclius by Johannes Moreelse

In the centuries after Homer there were intriguing references to his being not only a literary genius but also an astronomer. Nevertheless there is little if anything in the historical record to say how much or how little astronomy Homer knew and it is only with careful examination of his narrative and its embedded data that such a wealth of learning has become apparent.

Heraclitus (c. 535-475 BC) described the creator of the Iliad and the Odyssey as ‘Homer the astronomer, considered wisest of all Greeks’.

Eratosthenes (c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC), a polymath and keeper of the famous library at Alexandria, was said by Strabo to have declared that the astronomer-geographer Anaximander (d. 545 BC), a fellow citizen of Thales, and Hecateus of Miletus (c.550-c.490) were two successors of Homer.

Crates of Mallus, of the second century BC, was a noted supporter of a theory that Homer’s epics were the source of allegories that expressed scientific and philosophical learning.

Strabo (64BC – AD20) declared  that both he and his predecessors, including Hipparchus, regarded Homer as the founder of the science of geography  and that it was ‘impossible for any man to attain the requisite knowledge of geography without the determination of heavenly bodies and of the eclipses which have been observed. …. Geography … unites terrestrial and celestial phenomena as being very closely related and in no sense separated from each other as Heaven is high above the Earth.’

Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), author of a work on natural history that influenced western scientific thought until the Middle Ages, regarded Homer as the ‘father and prince of all learning’.

In an introduction to the Iliad in  1715, Alexander Pope wrote about ‘…those Secrets of Nature and Physical Philosophy which Homer is generally suppos’d to have wrapt up in his Allegories.’

In  Rise of the Greek Epic, 1907, the distinguished classicist Gilbert Murray briefly commented on [Homeric] ‘myth of a pronounced and curious kind.  …. it is a matter of the solar and lunar calendar.’ Although Murray lived for almost another 50 years we have not discovered  that he ever further expanded his remarks or  proposed that Homer’s epics were  the vehicles for preserving all of the astronomical and calendrical learning known to the pre-literate Greeks.

Despite these lingering memories of Homer, the idea that  the Iliad and the  Odyssey preserved substantial knowledge of astronomy and calendar-making  did not attract attention in modern times until  Edna Leigh began pioneering research into her hypothesis.

© 2016 K&FSWood

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4. Odysseus and the moon

800px-Mountain_Moonset J Eastland

THERE  is a compelling and consistent case to be made from narrative in the Odyssey that the rhythms of Odysseus’s adventures after the sacking of Troy reflect the progression of lunar months in Homer’s construction of an annual luni-solar calendar system.

‘Odysseus, a battle-weary hero struggling to return home after a prolonged and bloody war,  is the key figure for the preservation in story of this learning. To achieve his aims Homer created for Odysseus an alter ego as a personification of the moon. So closely is Odysseus’ iconic role linked to the calendar that the tempo of his adventures is governed by the rhythm of the monthly lunar cycle, from one new crescent moon to the next.’     Homer’s Secret Odyssey p10.

‘As will be seen, [Odysseus’s] experiences both before and after the fall of Troy are generally driven by the rhythm of the lunar month, the counting of lunations and cycles of the sun and moon; from this proposition all of the astronomical and calendrical matters discovered in the epic fall into place. The initial source of Odysseus’ lunar role was discovered in [the late] Edna Leigh’s papers on a single foolscap sheet of now yellowing paper with notes written in pencil … The layout appeared to be a lunar calendar of sorts and it became clear that this sheet, on which were plotted phases of the moon during the last 40 days of the Odyssey, was of fundamental significance.’           HSO pp 28-29

From that prime source began a prolonged line-by-line study of Odysseus in terms of a lunar-solar calendar system which is recorded in detail in Chapters 7 to 13, pp 101 to 180; the Ship’s Log, pp 200 to 221; and referenced elsewhere in HSO.

Rhythm of the moon and changing fortunes

Beliefs have persisted throughout history that phases of the moon have benign or malign influences on the affairs of mankind … strong support for Edna Leigh’s linking of the rhythm of Odysseus’ adventures to phases of the moon is found in the contemporary works of Hesiod. Both poets [Homer and Hesiod] project a view that some days of the lunar month were more auspicious than others. In Works and Days, Hesiod’s concern is for the moon’s daily influence on farming and family matters. The synopsis of the 40-day real-time calendar reveals Homer’s vision of the fortunes of Odysseus and other characters. There are similarities in both works and each considers the arrival of the new crescent as a ‘lucky’ or holy day. Hesiod says the fourth day of the month is a good day to construct a narrow boat from timbers already gathered, and Odysseus in his turn completes building a raft on the fourth day. As the moon waxes to mid-month, times are good but as it wanes to the dark of the moon times can be ‘fickle, bland and bring no luck’. Hesiod* states:

Again few know, the twenty-first is best,

At dawn, and worsens toward the evening time.

During Homer’s 40 ‘real-time’ days, the twenty-first day of the lunation begins well, but Poseidon later brings calamity to Odysseus and capsizes his raft. There are differences between Homer and Hesiod; for instance, Hesiod says the first night of the moon’s dark period is ‘lucky’, whereas for Odysseus it is generally a time of misfortune.’                    HSO pp 36-37.

* Reference: Wender, Dorothea (trans), Hesiod and Theogenis (Hammondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1973).

A calendar, the sun and the moon

Although the sun is the most prominent of the heavenly bodies it was the lunar calendar with its easily recognisable phases from new crescent to dark moon marking the passing of days and  months that was the most commonly used calendar in ancient times.

The daily path of the sun from sunrise to sunset is eminently suitable for marking the passing of time during daylight and in the Odyssey there are many references to  sunrise, midday and sunset.

However, with only four clear annual markers, the winter solstice, the spring and autumn equinoxes and the summer solstice, there would have been immense difficulties in using the sun to record the passing of individual days over the course of a year. This problem was resolved some 700 years after Homer when Julius Caesar (46 BC) reformed the Roman  calendar  which, with later improvements by Pope Gregory (1582),  is today’s internationally recognised calendar.

It is no surprise that the iconic figure of Odysseus is of prime importance in Homer’s preservation of a  calendar system that keeps the lunar year in harmony with the solar year. Homer’s Secret Odyssey reflects his knowledge of  sophisticated cycles of the sun and moon and indeed, the climax of the Odyssey occurs when Odysseus is reunited with Penelope at the end of a 19-year luni-solar cycle and ‘the coming together of the sun and moon’.

The daily hours of darkness were  divided into three ‘watches’ and shortly before Troy falls at dark of moon, Homer sets a scene with a waning moon in the third watch of the night.

‘Odysseus spins a yarn that one night before the Greeks entered the city he
led a party of Greek soldiers who hid in reeds and brushwood beneath the walls
when the night was ‘two-thirds done and the stars were past their zenith’ (14.483).
A bitter north wind driving the falling snow was so cold that their shields were
coated with ice and to keep warm Odysseus used a trick to acquire a cloak
from one of his companions. His tale reveals not only the time of year as midwinter
but also that it takes place during the last third of the hours of darkness,
with the diminishing crescent of the waning moon heralding the impending dark
period and the destruction of the city [of Troy]. It is easy for the eye to slip over the brief
quotation about the passing of the night hours without realising the depth of
astronomical learning required to divide night into three watches and to plot stars
across the sky over the course of a year.’ HSO, p 104

After this escapade and when the moon is no longer visible, Odysseus in his role as a personification of the moon, also cannot be seen as he hides inside the Wooden Horse until Troy is put to the sword.

© K&FS Wood, 2011 – 2016

See webpage at:  


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5. Homer the Mathematician

A major advance in our study of Homer’s Odyssey as a source of astronomical learning was analysis of the considerable numerical data embedded throughout the epic.

This data is directly related not only to the construction of a luni-solar calendar system and sophisticated cycles of the sun, moon and planet Venus, but also to an exposition on pi, the ratio of the diameter of a circle to its circumference (a concept also known in contemporary Egypt and Babylon).

An introduction to Homer the Mathematician begins in Homer’s Secret Odyssey, Chapter Four, Homer’s Wizardry with numbers, and continues throughout the book.

‘Sailing days’ and the moon

Such was Homer’s astronomical ability that some of the numbers embedded in the Odyssey  are significant in terms of phases of the moon in a luni-solar calendar system.

These numbers are used in various contexts, including the days and nights that Odysseus sails on the ‘wine-dark skies’.

Translations  include the following examples:

Odysseus sailed for 17 days and on the 18th…’ ( E.V. Rieu (Od.5.277)

Odysseus sailed For six days and six nights and on the seventh…’  (Rieu Od.10.80)

Odysseus is adrift for nine days and on the ‘tenth night’ washed ashore.  (Rieu Od.7.250)

Odysseus is at sea for a whole month. (Rieu Od. 12.326)

The significance of these numbers is that they record the number of days between phases of the moon during a lunar month.  For instance:

18 Days (Od.5.277) the period from the first quarter of the lunar month to the third quarter.

7 Days (Od.10.80) the period from the third quarter of the lunar month to dark moon.

10 Days (Od10.28) – third quarter to new crescent.

‘… for a month’ (Od.24.115)a lunar month.

Phrases such as those above divide the monthly cycle of the moon into useful units of time and may well have served a similar purpose to ‘weeks’ and ‘fortnights’ in more modern times.

Seven days as a unit of time is found in other ancient cultures in astronomical terms and has been associated with seven heavenly bodies; the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn.

3 days – Periods of the lunar month are not confined to ‘sailing days’ and at Od 17.515 (Rieu)  Odysseus is hidden in the hut of Eumaeus  for three days and nights which marks the dark period between the last sighting of the waning moon and the appearance of a new crescent moon at the climax of the Odyssey. See Homer’s Secret Odyssey p168 ff.

See also Homer’s Secret Odyssey (The History Press).

© 2016  K & FSWood


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6. Homer and a ‘deadly secret message’

AS battle raged between Greeks and Trojans in Homer’s Iliad, two warriors confronted and challenged each other in no-man’s land. Soon, and in a strange turn of events, they established common ground and friendship before shaking hands and going their separate ways.

The two men were the Greek hero Diomedes, King of Argos, and Glaucus, a leader of the Lycian supporters of the Trojans.

Both told of their proud and ancient lineage before Diomedes  declared: ‘I have said enough to show that in me you will now have a good friend in the heart of Argos, and I shall have you in Lycia, if I ever visit that country. So let us avoid each others spears…’

With no more ado, says Homer, both men leaped from their chariots, shook hands and pledged each other. Heart-warming as this episode may be it enabled Glaucus to recount a story about a famous ancestor, the heroic Bellerophon.

It also gave Homer the opportunity to record in the Iliad a memorable episode concerning unrequited lust, vicious revenge, murderous intent … and a secret message ‘traced with a number of devices’ which could only be understood by the sender and the recipient.  See Ref. 1 below.

Of this incident, David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers, wrote of ‘the story in the Iliad that includes the world’s first conscious reference to – as distinct from use of – secret writing’. See Ref. 2 below.

This story of Bellerophon began, said Homer, when Queen Anteia fell in love with the handsome young hero and ‘begged him to satisfy her passion in secret. But Bellerophon was a man of principle and refused ‘.

In revenge for being rejected, Anteia told her husband, King Proteus, that Bellerophon had tried to ravish her and demanded that he be killed.

As Bellerophon was a guest in his house, Proteus had to abide by custom and not carry out the murder. Instead Proteus sent Bellerophon to the King of Lycia ‘with sinister credentials from himself. He gave him [Bellerophen] a folded tablet on which he had traced a number of devices with a deadly meaning and told him to hand it to the Lycian king’.

That ‘folded tablet’ was intended to be Bellerophon’s death warrant.

‘When he [the King of Lycia] had deciphered the fatal measure’ he gave Bellerophon four tasks, none of which he was expected to survive. Gallant Bellerophon, however, turned the tables and killed the monstrous Chimaera, successfully fought the famous Solymi,
killed the Amazons ‘who go to war like men’, and finally, escaped a deadly ambush.

The King of Lycia then wisely re-thought his position and recognised that Bellerophon was a true son of the gods and not only offered him his daughter’s hand but also gave him half of his kingdom.

David Kahn (Ref. 3) notes:
‘This is the only mention of writing in the Iliad. Homer’s language is not precise enough to tell exactly what the markings on the tablet were… The whole tone of the reference makes it fairly clear that here, in the first great literary work of European culture, appear that culture’s first faint glimmerings of secrecy in communication.’ Ref.2.

In Homer’s times (c. 745-700 BC) when an efficient Greek writing system had yet to emerge, the story of Bellerophon and the ‘folded tablet’ was not the only method of preserving and communicating important knowledge.

Homer and earlier generations of poet-astronomers were the guardians of an extraordinary volume of knowledge of astronomy and calendar-making woven into the stories they memorised and passed down the centuries by word of mouth.  Such learning would have been as essential for the organisation and well-being of life in pre-literate Greece as it was in contemporary – and literate – Babylon and Egypt.

Crucial support for this view arises from analysis of the extensive numerical data embedded in the Odyssey which is directly and accurately linked to astronomy, sophisticated luni-solar cycles and calendar-making.

For a wider introduction to the Iliad and the Odyssey as extended astronomical metaphor see Homer’s Secret Iliad (John Murray, London) and Homer’s Secret Odyssey (The History Press).

Reference 1 and subsequent quotations are from the Iliad, Book 6, pp 120-122 (E.V. Rieu, Penguin Classics).

References 2 and 3: David Khan’s The Codebreakers (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1974 edition) pp 73-74. The Codebreakers was first published in 1967.

© K&FS Wood, 2015

Posted in Aeschylus, Ancient Astronomy, Ancient calendars, Ancient Greek calendars, astronomical allegory, astronomical metaphor, astronomical myth, encryption, Greek drama as astronomical allegory, History of Astronomy, Homer, Homer the Astronomer, Homer's Secret Iliad, Homer's Secret Odyssey, Iliad, Odyssey, The Iliad | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment